What is project sustainability?
Project Sustainability:-Most of developing countries receive a large number of loans/assistance for their development. Development projects are implemented by Go-NGOs. Different types of assistance from development multinational financial institutions are received. This assistance is used to attain some objectives.
Recent experience shows that the bulk of assistance used in these projects is implemented and completed with minimum benefits. Suppose some projects are established with sophisticated technology. These are functioning less or at reduced capacity. In some cases, the component of project activities can run without foreign technology. It should be observed that projects are rendering services to the intended. Beneficiaries for this more attention should be paid to the issue of operation and maintenance and sustainability.
Lack of sustainability hampers overall development and significantly overall growth. Hamper’s overall development significantly the overall growth & prospects of these countries. Policy Markers development partners have given special interest to the project. Sustainability even different organizations have given various opinions about sustainability from a different point of view.
Sustainability may be described as an activity or range of activities. That concerns the output and effect stage. The sequence input/effect- impact may be expressed here. Input will create output and produce some desired effects. This is done through logical sequence since the output will generate the effect it is required that some facilities created in the project should be maintained and operated.
Project sustainability is defined by word bank as the capacity of a project to continue delivering its intended benefits. Over a long period of time. The OED of the world bank states. The term sustainability describes the ability of a project to maintain an acceptable level of benefits. Economic life is expressed in quantitative terms involving the internal economy of the financial rate of return benefits. May also be qualitatively assessed for projects in the productive sector such as subsector policies technology transfer and institution building which must be assessed qualitatively.
Key Issues of Sustainability for Project Sustainability:-
a) Some capital assets trained manpower etc. created in the project from these continuous operations are needed.
b) To generate targeted income.
c) To maintain an enhanced level of productivity.
d) To ensure equities distribution of increased income and be befits among the target beneficiaries.
e) To ensure community participation.
f) To develop institutional capacity. In other words, some key points of sustainability are discussed.
- The flow of benefits results should be relevant to the reeds and interests of planners and beneficiaries.
- Development partner assists some inputs to the developing countries where developing countries try to achieve some real benefit and maintain the project and activities support its institution which can run smoothly.
- Real benefits and time period to be defined in each instance taking into account the country’s development. Objectives of the investment and recurrent cost and creation of a permanent institutional capacity should be reviewed properly by the policymakers.
- After termination of major assistance that the financial resources managerial capability for sustaining the project. There should be continuous relations with the development partner. Supplementary financing of commodities may be needed.
Factors of Sustainability:-
Some consensus is reached about the factors of sustainability. The factors of sustainability are as follows.
a) Government policies.
b) Management organization and local participation.
c) Financial factors.
d) Technology factors.
e) Socio-cultural factors.
f) Environment and Ecological factors.
g) External, Political and Economic circumstances.
Description abut of Factors:-
a) Government policies-
Govt. Projects are implemented with the framework of national policies/ objectives. Main govt. policies are the preparation of budget reservation of commodities/ utilities, and adoption of subsides interest states. personal practices etc.
Even private participation is most important in achieving programmed sustainability. In this regard govt. the policy will endeavor to participate in the private sector. Adequate Govt. commitment to rural development needs to be maintained over time.
b) Management organization and local participation in Project Sustainability:-
This includes leadership quality (managerial) administrative system and community participation. Managerial leadership can bring change which may help in achieving sustainable programs. Managerial capabilities are necessary to sustain the program. Assessment of local management capabilities is required for implementing good projects. This capability can help to run some activities after terminating the external assistance.
The policymakers should reflect on the project objectives which can be matched with organizational and administrative capability. Administrative machinery should perform its activities perfectly. It should be ensured that inputs were supplied timely.
Credits should be supplied to the beneficiaries at right. Logistics support Budgets are necessary and should be developed to run the program effectively. Even local participation in project planning implementation can affect beneficiaries’ welfare.
c) Financial factors for Project Sustainability:-
Project sustainability includes a flow of funds that is necessary to cover operation maintenance and depreciation. After the investment, it will generate continuously and created by the development project. It can create a system that runs the program effectively and smoothly. Financial analysis should be done so that funds are able and smoothly.
Financial analysis is done that funds are available the Project Manager will be able to achieve sustainable development programs project makers should emphasize in the financial plan for checking general inflation. Even user fees and community-based financing are required to pay for services rendered by the project.
d) Technology factors for Project Sustainability –
The technology should be appropriate to countries with consistent financial and institutional capabilities. In some cases advanced expensive and sophisticated technology may be wistful. Simple technology must be used to enable the counterpart staff.
If expensive relative to the benefits generated by the technology. Therefore the technology is necessary which is maintained tested adapted ensure its suitability where the developing countries’ experts can acquire the knowledge quickly so that they can run properly after the acquisition of respective knowledge. Even technical packages should be appropriate to suit local conditions and the environment. This should be judged by the technical evaluation experts.
e) Socio-cultural factors for Project Sustainability –
It should be examined the socio-cultural condition in the project area and consider what factors to be taken into account after ending assistance. The success of the project will arise maximum social benefit. Ensure the success of the project and will arise maximum social benefits. Even religious belief values should be given emphasis for their proper implementation.
Govt. can assess gender issues to define the roles and responsibilities of men and women which can assist programmed success. It may be mentioned that social roles in various economic activities can frequently be involved with gender.
f) Environment and Ecological factors for Project Sustainability –
Significant adverse environmental effects in rural development. Many developing countries are managing natural resources efficiently. The ecological balances are destroyed by excessive population. Poor management of natural resources is also responsible. Even unplanned development has expedited the devastation of natural resources threatening the ability of the environment which is to be reviewed for programmed sustainability.
It is needless to say that a negative environment can reduce or negate a project’s benefit. So careful planning may be needed to avoid serious problems. Regulative measures must be taken in this respect environmental policy needs to be prepared and actions can be taken. Ensure that the benefits of projects are sustainable in a manner that is ecological sound for this sustainability is enhanced. But the activities of the project can be stopped if they can create adverse effects on the environment.
So attention should be paid. In this regard at the macro level lack of concern with the impacts of development. Strategies for the sustainability of the natural environment can have more drastic effects the following examples are given.
See the below Factors:
- Due to a lack of concern with pollution control, all but two of India’s high-altitude lakes are dying.
- Uncontrolled deforestation has resulted in a lack of fodder for cattle.
- Concern with reducing the repayment period on social forestry projects has encouraged the planting of eucalyptus trees which grow quickly but cannot be used as fodder consequently forests can no longer sustain cattle production.
- Uncontrolled deforestation has resulted in 4 million hectares of land being swallowed up by ravines.
Regulatory control is required to prevent environmental abuse for individual profit. This is to be arranged sustainability can be enhanced by encouraging changes in behavior patterns that adversely affect the environment.
g) External, Political and Economic circumstances for Project Sustainability –
Development Projects are implemented within the context of existing political-economic cultural circumstances. Political instability or even a change of political leadership can hamper long-term growth. If it is not destroyed then it requires reaching sustainability. Even economic instability can disrupt programmed sustainability through the negative impact of inflations. Foreign exchange shortage on capital equipment and declining world market price.